November 11, 2011
By the end of the 20th century only 10 percent of all patents granted belong to women. If you make a list of the most famous inventions in the last few centuries, the authors of these inventions will be very few women. And it’s not that women are not able to invent or they do not have creative flair, but they face many obstacles in getting “credit” for their ideas.
Take, for example, the case of Sybil Masters, a woman who lived in the American colonies. After observing the work of Indian women, she invented a new way to turn corn into cornmeal. Sybil went to England in order to obtain a patent for his idea, however, under existing laws when women were forbidden to have their property, including intellectual. This property is usually owned by a woman or her father or her husband. In 1715 a patent for its invention yet been issued, the document was the name of her husband. Such property laws did not allow many women to obtain patents for their inventions. Women are also less likely to receive and receive technical education that would help them to generate great ideas and make them a real product. Many women are faced with prejudice and ridicule when they sought help from the men in the implementation of their ideas. Mary Keith (Mary Kies) was the first American woman filed a patent in her name. In 1809, she developed a way to weave straw hats, which was an economic good for New England. Given a document in his name, Mary, thus, paved the way for other women – to inventors in order to have the right to patent their ideas. Below is a list of 10 items, whose authors are women.
Circular Saw In the late 18th century came the Protestant religious sect known as Shakers. The main values of this sect were communal life, gender equality and hard work. Tabitha Babbitt lived in sheykerskom community in Massachusetts and worked as a weaver, but in 1810 she came up with a way to ease the strain on the work of his brothers. She noticed that men sawing logs a special saw with two handles, which are necessary to pull forward and back. Although the burden on both men was the same, sawed logs only when the saw is moved forward and backward movement in a log, nothing happened. Babbitt thought it was a waste of energy, and created a prototype of a circular saw, which later became used in sawmills. She came up with a saw with a circular blade, so every move made sense. However, due to the commandments of the community, Babbitt did not receive a patent for his invention.
Chocolate chip cookies
There is no doubt that many culinary masterpieces are born by accident, but among them is to select one of the most enduring and delicious – chocolate chip cookies. Ruth Wakefield was a doctor, a dietitian and food lecturer, before she and her husband bought an old house-post at the outpost in the suburbs of Boston. Traditionally, these houses were a place where weary travelers pay tolls, snack and feed the horses. Ruth and her husband have turned this place into a hotel with a restaurant. One day in 1930, Ruth was baking cookies for the residents of the hotel, in which the prescription was necessary to add the melted chocolate, but the woman was in a hurry, so she took the usual chocolate Nestle, broke it into small pieces and added to the dough, assuming that during the baking melted chocolate itself. Instead, the chocolate has acquired a special form, and thus was the birth of chocolate chip cookies. Nestle company said that sales of its chocolate grown in Massachusetts. Company representatives met with Wakefield to talk about her cookies, which very quickly gained a reputation among tourists. At the suggestion of Ruth, they have added to its line of chocolates for more than a simple fracture, and then in 1939 began to sell the factory production of biscuits, while Ruth was a recipe printed on the reverse side of the package. In exchange, the woman received a life support free chocolate.
Bette Nesmith Graham was not a good typist. However, high dropout rates of college students, which has touched and led the girl to the secretariat of the Bank of Texas, where she became executive secretary of the chairman of the bank. This was the beginning of the 1950s, electric typewriter had just been put into operation. But the secretaries often had to retype the whole page of text for one small error, as used at the time the carbon tape could not fix the error. Once Graham watched as workers struck a holiday picture on the window of the bank. She noticed that when they were wrong, they just applied another coat of paint on top to “close” error. Seeing this, she decided that she will be able to apply this idea in their work. Using a blender, she mixed the paint with water-based dye that was used in her typewriter. The mixture she took her work and she managed quietly by a thin watercolor brush to correct any errors in the printed document it. Soon, other secretaries began to demand the product, which Graham produced in your own kitchen. Graham was fired from his job for wasting a lot of time on the distribution of their goods, which she called “no fault”.However, being unemployed, she was able to improve its product, rename it as “liquid paper” and get it patented in 1958. Although typewriters have been replaced by computers, many people still use white liquid – a proofreader.
The compiler and programming language COBOL computer technology, we tend to call such names as Charles Babbage, Alan Turing, and Bill Gates. However, Admiral Grace Murray Hopper deserves credit for its role in the computer industry. Admiral Hopper began to serve in 1943, while she was at Harvard University, where she worked on the creation of computer IBM Harvard Mark I, which was the first large-scale computers in the United States. She was the third person in the project, while Grace wrote a manual of operations, which was used by her followers. In 1950, Admiral invented the compiler, which transformed the British team in the machine code. This meant that programmers can now write code more easily and with fewer errors. The other compiler Hopper, Flow-Matic, was used to program UNIVAC I and II, which supported the first appeared in the sale of computers.Admiral Hopper also oversaw the development of a common business oriented language COBOL, which was one of the first computer programming languages. Admiral Hopper received numerous awards for her work, in addition, it was named after an American warship.
When Martha Coston was widowed in 1847, she was only 21 years. In her arms had four children, and she had not the slightest idea of how to live and what to feed them. One evening she leafing through a notebook her deceased husband, and found there a plan to create a flare system, which could be used by ships to communicate with each other at night. Koston requested the relevant authorities on how to check the system to work, but it is not possible, but Koston was irresistible. The next 10 years she spent in the fact that the process of upgrading the system design and crafted by her husband the device. She consulted with scientists and officers, but still could not figure out how to make flash was bright and durable, with were simple to use. One night she brought her children to the street to look at those fireworks, then something in her head and had an idea about how to apply some pyrotechnic technology in its flare system. The flare system finally worked, and the U.S. Navy purchased the rights to it. Coloured flares Koston widely used during the Civil War. But, unfortunately, the flare system was not the best way for women to feed their children. According to military documents, Koston has produced for the Navy during the Civil War, about 1200000 missiles that it provided them at cost. She had to pay 120,000 dollars, of which she has received only 15,000, and, as she wrote in her autobiography, the Navy refused to pay her the full amount due to the fact that she was a woman.
Margaret Knight did not invent paper bag, but those first paper bags were not so useful for carrying things. They were more like envelopes, so there was no possibility of their use for food, that is something we know them now, they are not immediately apparent. For this we should thank Knight. It is understood that such packages should be large bottom area, then the weight evenly distributed to, and could accommodate such a package would be more things. In 1870, she created wooden machines that cut and glued square base of paper bags. While Knight was working on a prototype machine of iron, only to patent his invention, she found that her idea of stealing a man named Charles Annan (Charles Annan), which saw its wooden invention a few months earlier. She filed suit against Annan, who argued that it is impossible for a woman was able to invent such a complex in the car. Knight picked up all his sketches, drawings and notes, in the end she managed to prove otherwise and to obtain a patent on a device in 1871. However, it was the first patent, which got her so hard, but not the first patent in her life. At age 12, she developed automatically stops the machine, industrial product, if something went wrong, which helps prevent many injuries. Knight received 20 patents
We can assume that the dishwasher invented man who has spent years standing over the sink and washing out the mountain of dishes, lamenting wasted wasted time. In fact, Josephine Cochran, who received a patent on the first working the dishwasher, do not spend so much time washing dishes. Real incentive for its invention is the fact that one day after a beautiful dinner of its employees while cleaning the kitchen broke the amazing Chinese porcelain set that was very dear to her. Cochrane was a secular figure, which loved to entertain, but, after her husband died in 1883 She left with a huge amount of debt. Rather than sell its numerous relics, she focused on creating a machine that could wash them well, without harming them. Her car, based on the work which was aimed at the dishes under intense pressure stream of water, allowed her to obtain a patent for the device in 1886. The woman claimed to invent the car was much easier than move it to the masses. First, it failed invention of individual consumers, because many families did not have systems heat water, which are necessary for operation of the machine, and those who were not willing to pay for what women have done for free. Undaunted by this failure and, She began to search for meetings with the directors of the major hotels and restaurants, telling them that the dishwasher can do the job for which they paid tens of workers. Over time, however, more and more families began to acquire its own device in private ownership.
At the dawn of the 20th century, Mary Anderson first visited New York. She saw that New York City, which is very different from what they see tourists today. Then, there were no endless traffic jams and incredible number of cars that are infinite and meaningless honking to each other in a vain attempt to drive faster. In those days, cars have not yet captured the imagination of the U.S. and have been relatively rare. However, a woman from Alabama, having gone then in New York, has invented what has become a standard for each vehicle. During his visit, Anderson rode a tram through the snow-covered city. She drew attention to the fact that the driver has to stop every few minutes to clean the windshield of snow. While all drivers have done so, so he walked rain or snow, it was a real attack, which had to deal. After returning home, Anderson has developed a special holder on the spindle, which has been using the handle attached to the outside of the windshield. When the driver was required to clean the glass, he just pulled the handle of the instrument and removes dirt from the windshield. Anderson received a patent for his device in 1903, but only 10 years later, thousands of Americans began to go on vehicles with its invention.
Romantic relationships at a distance often questioned, however, Rachel Fuller Brown and Elizabeth Lee Hazen failed to prove that the professional relationship at a distance can lead to productive results. Both women worked at the New York State Department of Health in 1940, but Hazen was in New York, and Brown was in Albany. Despite the miles separating them, they cooperated in the creation of the first successful drug-fighting fungus. In New York, Hazen experienced soil samples in order to check whether the interfaces of any of the organisms from fungi. If she managed to find some activity in the soil, she had to send the specimen to my colleague, whose task was to extract from the soil organism that caused the reaction. As soon as Brown would have found the active ingredient, it should send the sample back to Hazen, so that she checked it again in the presence of fungi. If the body is able to kill fungi, it should be assessed for toxicity. Most of the samples proved to be too toxic for humans, but, finally, Brown and Hazen ran into an effective body that kills fungi and safe for humans. It happened in 1950. They called their drug nystatin. Currently the drug is sold under various trade names, and he treats fungal infections that affect the skin, sex organs and intestines.
It had to be just a temporary job. Stephanie Kwolek began working in the DuPont company in 1946 in order to accumulate enough money to study at the Medical College. In 1964, she was still in the same place of work, exploring how to make polymers in heavy-duty synthetic fibers.Kwolek worked with polymers whose molecules are rod-shaped and lined up in one line. Compared with the molecules that form the mixed system, Kwolek believed that the sharp lines, which are arranged in the molecule, make it conceived the material stronger. Moreover, it is all true, even though these polymers are very difficult to dissolve in the liquid, which can then be tested. Later she was able to finally create a solution with rod-shaped molecules, but the resulting solution it is much different from all other previously received Stephanie. The next step it was to be the transmission fluid through a special machine, which produces fabric. However, the operator of the machine is not allowed spunbond Kwolek use the device because it has received a mixture of totally different from that used previously to him, and he feared that the machine can break down. Yet Kwolek insisted and after the process Kwolek was as solid as steel fiber . This material called Kevlar, and is currently used for the production of skis, radial tires, brake pads, cables for suspension bridges, helmets, etc. In particular, Kevlar is used to make bulletproof vests, so even despite the fact that Kwolek has not gone to study in medical school, she, nevertheless, managed to save many lives.